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论文题名:  苏德战争前夕苏联对德国绥靖政策探析
作   者:  张少珊 学位名称: 硕士
指导教师:  董小川 作者院校: 东北师范大学
学科专业:  世界史 研究方向:
语    种:  中文 出    处: 东北师范大学研究生学位论文数据库
学科分类:   年    代: 2006
关 键 词:  苏德战争前夕 绥靖政策 法西斯德国
中文文摘:  从德国侵略波兰到苏德战争爆发,苏联同德国法西斯进行了长达近22个月的友好往来。在这段时间里,德国已经成为事实上的侵略国家,苏联却利用德国侵略的时机,趁机扩大自己的势力范围,建立东方战线,并与急需战略物资的德国进行经济贸易,动用舆论工具为法西斯德国张目。尽管苏联这样做是出于自己国家利益的考虑和维护世界上第一个社会主义国家存在的需要,但在法西斯势力猖獗、侵略扩张不断而世界反法西斯势力日盛的情况下,为了一己之利与法西斯势力妥协甚至合作,这是应该批判的。 二战初期苏联对德国绥靖政策的制定经历了一个发展变化的过程,而发展变化的体现便是两国政治经济往来。从总体上看,这一政策仅仅是苏联的权宜之计,但绥靖实践的内涵和结果都大大超出了其制订者的想象和意愿之外,而且更具复杂和矛盾的性质。本文准备在苏德关系的基础上,就苏联对德国法西斯的绥靖政策进行叙述,分析苏联实行绥靖政策的原因及后果,探讨其中的利弊得失,进一步总结历史的经验教训,找寻苏联对德国的政策和这种政策对当时的国际社会及对国际关系理论的影响,以期深化对这一问题的研究。 全文共分三部分: 引言:对本文的研究内容、研究方向、国内外学术界关于这一问题的研究现状作以简要的概述,并叙述选题的意义所在。 正文:叙述苏联政府对法西斯德国进行绥靖政策的实施背景、实施过程和对这一政策的原因后果及影响进行分析。 第一部分:分析苏联对德国绥靖政策的背景。从德国法西斯上台以后世界的国际形势、此时苏联对德国的集体安全抑德政策及在此政策下两国的往来等方面进行叙述。 第二部分:重点阐述苏德战争前苏联对德国绥靖政策的实施过程。具体分三个方面,苏德战争前夕复杂的国际形势和苏联对此形势的认识;影响苏德关系的波罗的海三国问题、波兰问题和苏德接近;苏联对德国实行绥靖政策时两国的政治经济贸易。 第三部分:对苏联的绥靖德国政策进行分析。包括:苏联对德国实行绥靖政策的原因、苏联实行绥靖政策对苏联本身、对德国、对国际社会产生的后果、 苏联的绥靖政策对国际关系理论及其实践的影响。 结论:苏联对德国的绥靖政策是由其国家利益决定的,同时与苏联对当时国际环境的认识、苏联领导人的个人因素等有关。苏联绥靖德国政策同英法的绥靖德国的政策是有明显的不同的,英法是为了与德国争夺世界霸权,苏联则是为了保全自己。但苏联的绥靖政策对它来说更象一把双刃剑,既刺中了敌人,也伤了自己。而苏联在采取此政策的时候并没有顾及到国际大趋势和其他主权国家的利益,表现了大国主义和沙文主义,这是不应该维护的。
英文文摘:  From the German invasion in Poland to the outbreak of Soviet and Germany War , Soviet had kept good relations with Germany for nearly 22 months during which Germany had become a true invader and Soviet gripped chances to expand herself with a view to build up the Oriental Front . The Soviet Union urgently traded with Germany , for which she utilized her public communications to aid German Nazi. Though the measures Soviet took at that time were based on the consideration of that she should put her interest in the fist place to protect the status quo of the first Socialism country ,she should be blamed for her selfishness under the world’s surrounding that the savage Nazi’s invasion and expansion had stirred anti-Nazi power and pressed it more stronger and influential. The primary time of WWⅡ saw that the Soviet Appeasement Policy experienced the developing procedure ,which were embodied the two countries’ economic exchange .The Soviet Appeasement Policy was a temporizing measure , still its practical implication and results exceeded our expectation and imagination ,at the same time , being complicated and controversial . The essay , on the ground of the political and economic exchange between the Soviet Union and Germany , analyzes the cause and effect of Soviet appeasement ,discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the policy , and furthers to summarize history lessons , digging out the policy’s effect on the international community and the theory of international relations , with the expectation that the concerned subjects could be deepened to study . The essay is composed of three parts: Preface: concisely generalize the study subject & targets and the present academic study situation on the field. Main body: narrate the Appeasement Policy’s background, development and cause & effect. 1. Analyze the background of the birth of Soviet appeasement, in line with the international circumstance when German Nazi took power and afterwards and two countries’ contact under the guidance of Soviet’s pressing Germany. 2.Focus on the development of the Appeasement Policy . definitely divide into three aspects to demonstrate: the complex international situation before Soviet and Germany War and the opinions on it Soviet held; the problems affecting Soviet and Germany’s relations (three Baltic states issue ,Poland issue ) ,and the Soviet Union’s approach to Germany. Political and economic bonds when the Appeasement Policy worked. 3. Analyze the Soviet Appeasement Policy. The cause and home, international and academic effect of the policy . Conclusion : Soviet national interest decided the carried-out appeasement affected by the Soviet leaders’ knowledge on the international situation and the leaders themselves. The obvious differences between Soviet appeasement and UK & France’s in that Britain and France had ambition to take a leading role in the world while Soviet protected herself. For Soviet ,the policy is a two-sided sword ,which hurts enemy as well as herself. Not considering international trend and other countries’ interests to carry out the policy , Soviet shows her nationalism and chauvinism and so should be criticized .
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